Weight loss is a common symptom of diseases with reduced body weight. Rapid weight loss is called exhaustion or cachexia (the latter term is often used to refer to extreme exhaustion). Moderate weight loss can be not only a symptom of the disease, but also a variant of the norm, conditioned by the constitutional peculiarity of the organism, for example, in individuals with asthenic type of physique.
Depression. One of the most common causes of sudden weight loss. People who suffer from depression are disturbed by taste perception. Any meal seems tasteless, appetite decreases. In addition, neuroses and depression are often accompanied by exacerbation of diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, for example gastritis. Discomfort after eating aggravates the symptoms.
Hormonal failures. Hormones of the thyroid gland, adrenal glands, pituitary gland and pancreas are responsible for the intensity of metabolism in the body, therefore problems with these endocrine organs immediately affect weight. In patients with hyperthyroidism and type diabetes mellitus, body weight decreases, despite increased appetite. Similar diseases are accompanied by weakness, dry skin, rapid pulse and mood disorders.
Diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. Loss of weight causes some diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. In the “list of suspects” enterocolitis, atrophic gastritis and celiac disease. These diseases lead to atrophy of the gastric mucosa and intestines, resulting in impaired absorption of nutrients, and this leads to weight loss. Symptoms can be different: pain, bloating, a feeling of heaviness, diarrhea, or constipation. The lack of vitamins and trace elements can appear in the form of anemia, dry skin, brittle nails, bleeding gums.
Diseases of the pancreas and gallbladder. Body weight decreases with chronic pancreatitis and chronic cholecystitis. Because of these diseases, digestion is disrupted and the body loses its ability to absorb certain nutrients. Patients feel discomfort after eating, nausea, diarrhea, with cholecystitis – pain in the right upper quadrant. The chair changes its consistency and acquires a greasy shine.
Infections and parasites. Weight loss can be a sign of serious viral diseases. Hepatitis C or HIV can develop for a long time without significant symptoms, and often it is weight loss that is the first sign of the disease.
Another cause of weight loss may be tuberculosis. Patients lose their appetite, in addition, the body spends a lot of energy on fighting the causative agent of the infection. In addition to weight loss, the classic signs of pulmonary tuberculosis are a prolonged cough with sputum separation, as well as a prolonged temperature rise above 37 ° C, general weakness and night sweats.
A person can lose weight sharply if helminths or parasitic protozoa, for example lamblia, have settled in the intestine. Infection can be accompanied by nausea, bloating, disturbances of the stool, as well as rashes on the skin or fever.
Oncological diseases are often accompanied by significant weight loss and deterioration in the overall condition of patients – cancerous cachexia. Patients lose their appetite, the perception of taste is disturbed. There are pathologies of metabolism – muscle mass and the volume of adipose tissue are reduced even with full nutrition. In addition, weight loss can be caused by psychological factors: patients with a recently confirmed diagnosis lose weight due to developing depression. Chemotherapy also leads to a temporary weight loss.
Weight loss is one of the main symptoms of lymphoma and lymphogranulomatosis. In addition to weight loss, these diseases are evidenced by a painless increase in lymph nodes in the neck, in the armpits and in the groin. With leukemia, weight loss is also observed.
There are various variants of diets, when it is recommended to use only products of animal origin – fast beef, veal, lamb, pork, rabbit meat, chicken and turkey meat without skin, for low weight in the diet, low-fat products of the sea and fish, dairy products, skimmed milk cheese etc. In such diets it is allowed to use spices and spices.
You can lose weight on such a diet. But at what cost? Complete exclusion from the diet of vegetables, fruits, cereals, rich in dietary fiber, any fats and sugar from a scientific point of view is completely unacceptable and harmful to health.
One can not disagree with the fact that some diets contain a certain rational grain. For example, a diet with a low glycemic index in today’s life is really good for health. But in most cases, there is no clear evidence of high and long-term effectiveness.
The main thing is that the diet does not harm the body, even if the desired weight loss effect is achieved. It is important how the diet affects the level of blood pressure, blood glucose, insulin, lipids, cholesterol in the blood, how it affects other biochemical parameters of the blood composition, including those characterizing the body’s supply of vitamins, minerals, including. microelements. And such data is still not enough.
There are other, no less popular, but even more stringent and dangerous to health diets, recommended for use in excess weight. These include, for example, – English, Hollywood, jockey, motley, spectacled diets and many others. These diets are extremely unbalanced in many vital nutrients. These diets were not evaluated in clinical settings. Their effectiveness in medical institutions is not confirmed. Indications, contraindications and possible side effects from their use are not developed.
Experts recommend to treat with caution and to today’s widespread mono diets. They are based on a long-term use of a single product, with the exception of the rest of the components. Among the most popular mono-diet – banana, chocolate, cottage cheese, apple and others. The use of such a nutrition correction is highly questionable: in nature, there is no product that can fully meet the needs of the human body in minerals, vitamins, proteins, fats, carbohydrates and other vital elements. Therefore, any mono-diet is unbalanced and can lead to negative health consequences. For example, the use of a single product helps slow the metabolism and, instead of the desired reduction in fat tissue, can lead to the burning of muscle tissue. Alternatives to mono-diets can serve as fasting days: they help to cleanse the body and gradually get rid of excess weight.
None of them allows you to comply with the second law of nutrition science. With scientist
medical points of view, and we are deeply convinced that these diets can only be used for an extremely limited, short time and only under the supervision of a doctor.