Other Diets for Weight Loss

General information

Weight loss is a common symptom of diseases with reduced body weight. Rapid weight loss is called exhaustion or cachexia (the latter term is often used to refer to extreme exhaustion). Moderate weight loss can be not only a symptom of the disease, but also a variant of the norm, conditioned by the constitutional peculiarity of the organism, for example, in individuals with asthenic type of physique.

Causes

Depression. One of the most common causes of sudden weight loss. People who suffer from depression are disturbed by taste perception. Any meal seems tasteless, appetite decreases. In addition, neuroses and depression are often accompanied by exacerbation of diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, for example gastritis. Discomfort after eating aggravates the symptoms.

 

Hormonal failures. Hormones of the thyroid gland, adrenal glands, pituitary gland and pancreas are responsible for the intensity of metabolism in the body, therefore problems with these endocrine organs immediately affect weight. In patients with hyperthyroidism and type diabetes mellitus, body weight decreases, despite increased appetite. Similar diseases are accompanied by weakness, dry skin, rapid pulse and mood disorders.

Diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. Loss of weight causes some diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. In the “list of suspects” enterocolitis, atrophic gastritis and celiac disease. These diseases lead to atrophy of the gastric mucosa and intestines, resulting in impaired absorption of nutrients, and this leads to weight loss. Symptoms can be different: pain, bloating, a feeling of heaviness, diarrhea, or constipation. The lack of vitamins and trace elements can appear in the form of anemia, dry skin, brittle nails, bleeding gums.

Diseases of the pancreas and gallbladder. Body weight decreases with chronic pancreatitis and chronic cholecystitis. Because of these diseases, digestion is disrupted and the body loses its ability to absorb certain nutrients. Patients feel discomfort after eating, nausea, diarrhea, with cholecystitis – pain in the right upper quadrant. The chair changes its consistency and acquires a greasy shine.

Infections and parasites. Weight loss can be a sign of serious viral diseases. Hepatitis C or HIV can develop for a long time without significant symptoms, and often it is weight loss that is the first sign of the disease.

Another cause of weight loss may be tuberculosis. Patients lose their appetite, in addition, the body spends a lot of energy on fighting the causative agent of the infection. In addition to weight loss, the classic signs of pulmonary tuberculosis are a prolonged cough with sputum separation, as well as a prolonged temperature rise above 37 ° C, general weakness and night sweats.

A person can lose weight sharply if helminths or parasitic protozoa, for example lamblia, have settled in the intestine. Infection can be accompanied by nausea, bloating, disturbances of the stool, as well as rashes on the skin or fever.

Oncological diseases are often accompanied by significant weight loss and deterioration in the overall condition of patients – cancerous cachexia. Patients lose their appetite, the perception of taste is disturbed. There are pathologies of metabolism – muscle mass and the volume of adipose tissue are reduced even with full nutrition. In addition, weight loss can be caused by psychological factors: patients with a recently confirmed diagnosis lose weight due to developing depression. Chemotherapy also leads to a temporary weight loss.

Weight loss is one of the main symptoms of lymphoma and lymphogranulomatosis. In addition to weight loss, these diseases are evidenced by a painless increase in lymph nodes in the neck, in the armpits and in the groin. With leukemia, weight loss is also observed.

There are various variants of diets, when it is recommended to use only products of animal origin – fast beef, veal, lamb, pork, rabbit meat, chicken and turkey meat without skin, for low weight in the diet, low-fat products of the sea and fish, dairy products, skimmed milk cheese etc. In such diets it is allowed to use spices and spices.

You can lose weight on such a diet. But at what cost? Complete exclusion from the diet of vegetables, fruits, cereals, rich in dietary fiber, any fats and sugar from a scientific point of view is completely unacceptable and harmful to health.

One can not disagree with the fact that some diets contain a certain rational grain. For example, a diet with a low glycemic index in today’s life is really good for health. But in most cases, there is no clear evidence of high and long-term effectiveness.

The main thing is that the diet does not harm the body, even if the desired weight loss effect is achieved. It is important how the diet affects the level of blood pressure, blood glucose, insulin, lipids, cholesterol in the blood, how it affects other biochemical parameters of the blood composition, including those characterizing the body’s supply of vitamins, minerals, including. microelements. And such data is still not enough.

There are other, no less popular, but even more stringent and dangerous to health diets, recommended for use in excess weight. These include, for example, – English, Hollywood, jockey, motley, spectacled diets and many others. These diets are extremely unbalanced in many vital nutrients. These diets were not evaluated in clinical settings. Their effectiveness in medical institutions is not confirmed. Indications, contraindications and possible side effects from their use are not developed.

Experts recommend to treat with caution and to today’s widespread mono diets. They are based on a long-term use of a single product, with the exception of the rest of the components. Among the most popular mono-diet – banana, chocolate, cottage cheese, apple and others. The use of such a nutrition correction is highly questionable: in nature, there is no product that can fully meet the needs of the human body in minerals, vitamins, proteins, fats, carbohydrates and other vital elements. Therefore, any mono-diet is unbalanced and can lead to negative health consequences. For example, the use of a single product helps slow the metabolism and, instead of the desired reduction in fat tissue, can lead to the burning of muscle tissue. Alternatives to mono-diets can serve as fasting days: they help to cleanse the body and gradually get rid of excess weight.

None of them allows you to comply with the second law of nutrition science. With scientist
medical points of view, and we are deeply convinced that these diets can only be used for an extremely limited, short time and only under the supervision of a doctor.

General Principles of Weight Loss. How to Lose Weight Properly?

After the problem with excess weight is determined and there was an intention to lose weight, the question arises: how to do it? How to eat properly to lose weight?

To reduce body weight a person should reduce the caloric content of a daily diet and maximize energy expenditure due to physical exertion. It is important to do everything possible to exclude from the lifestyle and nutrition all the factors of obesity, both food and psychological.

The effective method of losing weight is based, first of all, on the observance of calorie norms of consumed products. The energy value of the diet for women should be gradually reduced to 1500, and even to 1200, and for men – up to 1800-1500 kcal / day.

At the same time, it is necessary to lead a more physically active way of life (for example, walking more 1-2 hours a day, swimming, summer cycling, winter skiing, etc.).

 

How to calculate the energy needs in terms of physical activity.

Calculate the approximate daily caloric intake needed to achieve the desired effect, you can use the formula with allowance for physical activity.

 

Low level of physical activity:

Caloric content of the diet to maintain a normal weight = normal for your weight gain in kg x 32.5

 

Moderate level of physical activity:

Caloric content of the diet to maintain normal weight = normal for your weight gain in kg x 37.5.

Here is a concrete example of how to calculate the caloric content of a diet to reduce the weight of a person with a low level of physical activity with an increase of 1.7 m and an actual weight of 80 kg.

For this, the actual mass of the body must be multiplied by 32.5. As a result, we get 2600 kcal.

Then follows the normal weight to which we aspire (with an increase of 1.7 m – BMI 22×1.72 = 63.6 kg), multiply by 32.5, which is 2064 kcal, i.е. so many calories are needed in order to maintain the normal body weight of the person and avoid her subsequent increase.

Comparing the energy value of the diet at the actual and normal weight (2600 and 2064 kcal), we find out that to achieve the optimal weight, 500-600 calories should be excluded daily from the usual diet (of course, due to fatty and sweet foods).

 

How fast can you lose weight without harming your health?

Some foreign authors claim that the maximum allowable weekly weight loss should be 2 kg 250 g. In this case, you can lose 4.5 kg in 2 weeks and about 7 kg in 3 weeks.

However, most domestic dietitians believe that in order to lose weight properly, weight should be reduced gradually and at a lower rate – in a week, its losses can be on average only 400-800 g.

At the same time, it is important that the new way of life and nutrition does not deliver emotional experiences, does not form a feeling of hunger and stress on this soil. A person who has not mastered the basic rules of weight reduction will quickly come to the conclusion that the actions taken by him in this respect are useless, will shift to the old diet and the old way of life. As a result, its weight will not only recover very quickly, but may even exceed its original value. All efforts will be in vain.

One of the main theses on which effective methods of losing weight are based is the provision that food should be as varied as possible.

Applying any dietary system or diet, do not expect miracles, do not rely on instant effect, do not starve, do not sit on these diets for a long time, do not exhaust yourself with excessive physical exercises. Let us assume that the result of such excessive efforts is most often known in advance (this is evidenced by world experience): having convinced himself that the changes taking place in weight reduction are insignificant and disillusioned with the attempts made, the person will inevitably return to his habitual, former dietary habits and way of life.

However, the weight still need to be constantly monitored. Because its increase is always a decrease in the quality of life, health, the way to many, often deadly diseases. Therefore, in every family you need to have a floor scales to constantly control your weight.

This does not mean that you need to sit at the dinner table with a calculator. Do not count calories at every meal. But it should be clearly remembered that if today there was a visit to a restaurant or visit a restaurant and had to abuse the amount of food, then the next day it is necessary to arrange a day of unloading – without feelings and remorse.

To guarantee the necessary loss of extra pounds, it is important to increase energy expenditure due to additional physical activity by 200-500 kcal / day.

Simple advice for those who decided to lose weight correctly

You can formulate a few simple tips for those who decided to reduce weight, lose weight properly and with health benefits:

  • eat slowly, chewing food carefully. Signals about the saturation of the organism enter the brain only after 20-30 minutes. after the beginning of the meal;
  • Exclude the consumption of alcoholic beverages – they are high in calories and contribute to increased appetite;
  • do not get carried away with the consumption of a large amount of liquid – water, although it does not contain calories, but can provoke swelling, and with obesity this possibility increases;
  • remember that rare, but abundant meals, especially at night, work for obesity;
  • do not eat for company when you are not hungry;
  • Do not eat in front of the TV, this leads to uncontrolled consumption of food and food;
  • strive to increase the motor activity in any of its manifestations;
  • regularly weigh yourself in the morning, on an empty stomach – analyze the dynamics of body weight and compare it with your diet to identify unwanted foods and dishes;
  • sleep 7-8 hours a day – lack of sleep contributes to the development of obesity;
  •    try to be distracted from thoughts about food – keep an interesting book at hand.Since any restriction in nutrition, especially with a low-calorie diet, does not allow meeting the body’s needs for vitamins, mineral salts and other important biologically active compounds, additional intake of specialized products, vitamin-mineral and other biologically active food additives, including those , which are specifically designed for people who reduce body weight.I would like to hope that the presented material will help convince the reader that a healthy person does not need any special diets or advertised “author’s” food systems. With unreasonable and frequent use of these methods, weight loss can bring irreparable harm, not good. Any such diets, as a rule, are unbalanced in calorie content and composition of useful elements. This also determines the adverse effects that so often accompany people who are fond of the newfangled methods of combating obesity.